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Travel Guide 2   >   Europe   >   Bulgaria   >   History

   
 

Bulgarian History


Bulgaria is the site of one of the world's oldest civilizations, and the oldest known writing system (the Gradeshnitsa Tablets which date to at least 4000 BC).

In early classical times the territory of Bulgaria was inhabited by the Thracians. The Thracians were divided into various tribes, but eventually united as the Odrysian kingdom under King Teres in the 5th century BC. The region was invaded by the Romans in 188 BC, and wars continued until 45 AD when Thrace became a Roman province.

Beginning in the 2nd century AD, a semi-nomadic people, the Bulgars, began to migrate towards the West from Central Asia. By the 4th century, the Bulgars had settled in the lands to the North of the Black Sea, around the Sea of Azov, and by the 7th century had established a state known as "Great Bulgaria" or "Onoghuria" in the region. Later in the 7th century, one tribe of Bulgars moved West, defeated the Byzantine empire in a war, and were recognized in the subsequent peace treaty with the Byzantines as an independent state in 681.

The First Bulgarian Empire was established under the warrior Khan Krum (802 to 814) who conquered a number of lands in the Balkans. The empire eventually encompassed all of present day Romania, as well as parts of Serbia, Macedonia, Albania and Greece. It was during this period the Cyrillic alphabet was adopted, and Christianity was introduced to the Bulgarians.

The Byzantine Empire ruled Bulgaria from 1018 to 1185, but after a revolt in 1185, a Second Bulgarian Empire was established. However, this Empire was relatively short lived. In 1354 the Ottoman Turks crossed into Europe, and by 1396 had conquered the whole of Bulgaria.

Veliko Tarnovo - capital of the Second Bulgarian Empire (1185 to 1393)

After hundreds of years of Ottoman rule, Bulgaria began to experience a national revival inspired by western ideas from the enlightment, and the Greek revolt against Ottoman rule. In 1870, a Bulgarian Church ("Exarchate") was established, and in 1876 Bulgarians revolted against Ottoman rule in the April Uprising. Russia declared war on the Ottomans in 1877, and by 1878, most of Bulgaria was liberated from the Ottomans. Additional Ottoman territories in Europe were liberated in the First Balkan War (1912 to 1913), however Bulgaria was then defeated by the combinaton of Serbia, Greece, Romania and the Ottoman Empire in the Second Balkan War (1913) and lost a significant amount of territory as a result.

During World War I, Bulgaria was allied with Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, and was for a while successful in making territorial gains. However, the war gradually became increasingly unpopular because of economic hardships, and because the population did not wish to fight in alliance with the Muslim Ottoman Empire against the Orthodox Christians of Serbia and Greece. As a result, mutinies broke out in the army, the government resigned, and a republic was proclaimed.

During World War II, Bulgaria attempted to avoid involvement in the war, and even managed to peacefully regain the territory of Southern Dobruja from Romania as a result of the 1940 Treaty of Craiova. Ultimately however, in 1941, Bulgaria had no choice but to join the Axis when German troops passed through the country in order to invade Greece.

After World War II, Bulgaria became officially known was the People's Republic of Bulgaria, and was ruled by the Bulgarian Communist Party. Communist rule ended in 1990, when the Communists voluntarily gave up power and held the first free elections since 1931. The transition from communism to capitalism has not been easy for Bulgaria; living standards fell dramatically and the country even experienced a sharp decline in population. However, since 1997, the economy has been growing steadily, and in 2007, Bulgaria joined the European Union.

Here are some books about the history of Bulgaria:


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Books about Bulgarian History


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A Concise History of Bulgaria (Cambridge Concise Histories)

By R. J. Crampton

Brand: Cambridge University Press
Released: January 9th, 2006
Paperback (312 pages)

A Concise History of Bulgaria (Cambridge Concise Histories)
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Description:
A Concise History of Bulgaria (Cambridge Concise Histories)
  • Manufacturer: Cambridge University Press
  • Brand: Brand: Cambridge University Press
  • ISBN: 0521616379
  • EAN: 9780521616379
  • PartNumber: 40 b/w illus. 14 maps
Details:
  • Paperback
  • Edition: 2
  • Number of Pages: 312
  • Author: R. J. Crampton
  • Publication Date: January 9th, 2006
  • Release Date: January 9th, 2006
Physical Description:
  • Size: 8.51 Inches by 5.51 Inches by 0.71 Inches
  • Weight: 0.9479877266 Pounds
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  • Used Book in Good Condition
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The History of Bulgaria (The Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations)

By Frederick B. Chary

Greenwood
Released: February 18th, 2011
Hardcover (210 pages)

The History of Bulgaria (The Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations)
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The History of Bulgaria (The Greenwood Histories of the Modern Nations)
  • Manufacturer: Greenwood
  • ISBN: 0313384460
  • EAN: 9780313384462
Details:
  • Hardcover
  • Number of Pages: 210
  • Author: Frederick B. Chary
  • Publication Date: February 18th, 2011
  • Release Date: February 18th, 2011
Physical Description:
  • Size: 9.3 Inches by 6.4 Inches by 1.0 Inches
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Britain, Bulgaria, and the Paris Peace Conference, 1918–1919: A Just and Lasting Peace?

By Patrick J. Treanor

Lexington Books
Released: November 20th, 2019
Hardcover (340 pages)

Britain, Bulgaria, and the Paris Peace Conference, 1918–1919: A Just and Lasting Peace?
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Britain, Bulgaria, and the Paris Peace Conference, 1918–1919: A Just and Lasting Peace?
  • Manufacturer: Lexington Books
  • Brand: Lexington Books
  • ISBN: 1498585620
  • EAN: 9781498585620
Details:
  • Hardcover
  • Number of Pages: 340
  • Author: Patrick J. Treanor
  • Publication Date: November 20th, 2019
  • Release Date: November 20th, 2019
Physical Description:
  • Size: 9.15 Inches by 6.31 Inches by 1.01 Inches
  • Weight: 1.4109584768 Pounds
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The BalkansA History of Bulgaria-Serbia-Greece-Rumania-Turkey

By Nevill Forbes & D. Mitrany

Kindle Edition (301 pages)

The BalkansA History of Bulgaria-Serbia-Greece-Rumania-Turkey
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The BalkansA History of Bulgaria-Serbia-Greece-Rumania-Turkey

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  • Kindle Edition
  • Format: Kindle eBook
  • Number of Pages: 301
  • Authors: Nevill Forbes, D. G. (David George) Hogarth, D. Mitrany, Arnold Joseph Toynbee
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A History of the First Bulgarian Empire

By Steven Runciman

lulu.com
Released: August 22nd, 2018
Paperback (324 pages)

A History of the First Bulgarian Empire
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A History of the First Bulgarian Empire
  • Manufacturer: lulu.com
  • ISBN: 0359041434
  • EAN: 9780359041435
Details:
  • Paperback
  • Number of Pages: 324
  • Author: Steven Runciman
  • Publication Date: August 22nd, 2018
  • Release Date: August 22nd, 2018
Physical Description:
  • Size: 9.0 Inches by 6.0 Inches by 0.81 Inches
  • Weight: 1.05 Pounds
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The Rose of the Balkans (A Short History of Bulgaria)

By Ivan Ilchev

Colibri
Paperback

The Rose of the Balkans (A Short History of Bulgaria)
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The Rose of the Balkans (A Short History of Bulgaria)
  • Manufacturer: Colibri
  • ISBN: 9545293950
  • EAN: 9789545293955
Details:
  • Paperback
  • Edition: First
  • Author: Ivan Ilchev
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  • Weight: 1.0 Pounds
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Country Jumper in Bulgaria (History For Kids)

By Claudia Dobson-Largie

Independently published
Released: November 1st, 2019
Paperback (34 pages)

Country Jumper in Bulgaria (History For Kids)
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Country Jumper in Bulgaria (History For Kids)
  • Manufacturer: Independently published
  • ISBN: 1703981723
  • EAN: 9781703981728
Details:
  • Paperback
  • Format: Large Print
  • Number of Pages: 34
  • Author: Claudia Dobson-Largie
  • Publication Date: November 1st, 2019
  • Release Date: November 1st, 2019
Physical Description:
  • Size: 9.0 Inches by 6.0 Inches by 0.08 Inches
  • Weight: 0.18 Pounds
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