Book Rental Car
Towns and Cities
More Bulgarian Cities
Bulgaria Country Information
Bulgaria is the site of one of the world's oldest civilizations, and the oldest known writing system (the Gradeshnitsa Tablets which date to at least 4000 BC).
In early classical times the territory of Bulgaria was inhabited by the Thracians. The Thracians were divided into various tribes, but eventually united as the Odrysian kingdom under King Teres in the 5th century BC. The region was invaded by the Romans in 188 BC, and wars continued until 45 AD when Thrace became a Roman province.
Beginning in the 2nd century AD, a semi-nomadic people, the Bulgars, began to migrate towards the West from Central Asia. By the 4th century, the Bulgars had settled in the lands to the North of the Black Sea, around the Sea of Azov, and by the 7th century had established a state known as "Great Bulgaria" or "Onoghuria" in the region. Later in the 7th century, one tribe of Bulgars moved West, defeated the Byzantine empire in a war, and were recognized in the subsequent peace treaty with the Byzantines as an independent state in 681.
The First Bulgarian Empire was established under the warrior Khan Krum (802 to 814) who conquered a number of lands in the Balkans. The empire eventually encompassed all of present day Romania, as well as parts of Serbia, Macedonia, Albania and Greece. It was during this period the Cyrillic alphabet was adopted, and Christianity was introduced to the Bulgarians.
The Byzantine Empire ruled Bulgaria from 1018 to 1185, but after a revolt in 1185, a Second Bulgarian Empire was established. However, this Empire was relatively short lived. In 1354 the Ottoman Turks crossed into Europe, and by 1396 had conquered the whole of Bulgaria.
After hundreds of years of Ottoman rule, Bulgaria began to experience a national revival inspired by western ideas from the enlightment, and the Greek revolt against Ottoman rule. In 1870, a Bulgarian Church ("Exarchate") was established, and in 1876 Bulgarians revolted against Ottoman rule in the April Uprising. Russia declared war on the Ottomans in 1877, and by 1878, most of Bulgaria was liberated from the Ottomans. Additional Ottoman territories in Europe were liberated in the First Balkan War (1912 to 1913), however Bulgaria was then defeated by the combinaton of Serbia, Greece, Romania and the Ottoman Empire in the Second Balkan War (1913) and lost a significant amount of territory as a result.
During World War I, Bulgaria was allied with Germany, Austria-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire, and was for a while successful in making territorial gains. However, the war gradually became increasingly unpopular because of economic hardships, and because the population did not wish to fight in alliance with the Muslim Ottoman Empire against the Orthodox Christians of Serbia and Greece. As a result, mutinies broke out in the army, the government resigned, and a republic was proclaimed.
During World War II, Bulgaria attempted to avoid involvement in the war, and even managed to peacefully regain the territory of Southern Dobruja from Romania as a result of the 1940 Treaty of Craiova. Ultimately however, in 1941, Bulgaria had no choice but to join the Axis when German troops passed through the country in order to invade Greece.
After World War II, Bulgaria became officially known was the People's Republic of Bulgaria, and was ruled by the Bulgarian Communist Party. Communist rule ended in 1990, when the Communists voluntarily gave up power and held the first free elections since 1931. The transition from communism to capitalism has not been easy for Bulgaria; living standards fell dramatically and the country even experienced a sharp decline in population. However, since 1997, the economy has been growing steadily, and in 2007, Bulgaria joined the European Union.
Here are some books about the history of Bulgaria:
Comments about Bulgarian History
Please share your comments about the history of Bulgaria:
Books about Bulgarian History
Disclosure: Products details and descriptions provided by Amazon.com. Our company may receive a payment if you purchase products from them after following a link from this website.
Note: Our company does NOT provide travel, vacation, hotel, car rental services or associated products or services. Any links (including but not limited to banners, text links, or search forms) to such items on this web site are adverts from third parties. Sorry we can NOT answer questions about these types of products or services.
Unless specifically noted on the page in question, our company is NOT associated with attractions or places of interest that may be described on this website. In such cases, we have often provided links to the official sites where possible, or other third party sites containing useful information, purely as a courtesy and for informational purposes only.
All information about attractions, places of interest, travel destinations, travel services, etc., was believed to be correct at the time it was prepared, but may be change at any time. Readers are advised to check with their travel agent, travel provider, or the attraction operator, for current information.
Copyright © 2007-2017, Answers 2000 Limited
CERTAIN CONTENT THAT APPEARS ON THIS SITE COMES FROM AMAZON SERVICES LLC. THIS CONTENT IS PROVIDED 'AS IS' AND IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE OR REMOVAL AT ANY TIME.
CERTAIN CONTENT THAT APPEARS ON THIS SITE,COMES FROM AMAZON EU S.à r.l. THIS CONTENT IS PROVIDED 'AS IS' AND IS SUBJECT TO CHANGE OR REMOVAL AT ANY TIME.
Disclosure: Our company's websites' content (including this website's content) includes advertisements for our own company's websites, products, and services, and for other organization's websites, products, and services. In the case of links to other organization's websites, our company may receive a payment, (1) if you purchase products or services, or (2) if you sign-up for third party offers, after following links from this website. Unless specifically otherwise stated, information about other organization's products and services, is based on information provided by that organization, the product/service vendor, and/or publicly available information - and should not be taken to mean that we have used the product/service in question. Additionally, our company's websites contain some adverts which we are paid to display, but whose content is not selected by us, such as Google AdSense ads. For more detailed information, please see Advertising/Endorsements Disclosures
In Association With Amazon.com
Answers 2000 Limited is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com.
In Association With Amazon.co.uk
Answers 2000 Limited is a participant in the Amazon EU Associates Programme, an affiliate advertising programme designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.co.uk.